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Good Intentions: Are Zoos and Aquariums Encouraging Visitors to Conserve?

Rebeka Torlay

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The American Association of Zoo Keepers, Inc. exists to advance excellence in the animal keeping profession, foster effective communication beneficial to animal care, support deserving conservation projects, and promote the preservation of our natural resources and animal life.



This photo features Taza, a male snow leopard (Panthera uncia) at Lincoln Park Zoo in Chicago, IL. Taza is a pretty laid-back cat, preferring to spend most days napping outside on the high rocks in his habitat. He tends to engage with any type of enrichment that

he is offered. This was his first time receiving the Looky Lou mirror (, and he was definitely intrigued. Taza currently resides at Potter Park Zoo in Lansing, MI, having been transferred there in May 2019 in preparations for renovations to the historic Kovler Lion House at Lincoln Park Zoo.

As one of the world’s most elusive cats, snow leopards are well-equipped to thrive in some of the harshest conditions on Earth in the mountains of Central Asia. Long hind legs give them the ability to leap as far as 15 meters in distance, and about six meters high. Their wide, fur-covered paws act as natural snowshoes, while their long, flexible tail aids in balance and can also be wrapped around their body as protection from the cold. Their smoky grey coats with dark rosettes allow them to blend in perfectly with the rocky mountain slopes. There are between 4,000 and 7,000 snow leopards in the wild, but it

is difficult to accurately assess the population due to the fact that snow leopards live in some of the most inaccessible areas and are very rarely seen, helping them to earn the nickname “ghost of the mountain”. Snow leopards were previously listed as Endangered on the IUCN Red List, but were reclassified as Vulnerable in 2017. The main threats to their existence are poaching, habitat loss, and retaliatory killings. Cover photo by Allycia Darst of Lincoln Park Zoo.

Articles sent to Animal Keepers’ Forum will be reviewed by the editorial staff for publication. Articles of a research or technical nature will be submitted to one or more of the zoo professionals who serve as referees for AKF. No commitment is made to the author, but an effort will be made to publish articles as soon as possible. Lengthy articles may be separated into monthly installments at the discretion of the Editor. The Editor reserves the right to edit material without consultation unless approval is requested in writing by the author. Materials submitted will not be returned unless accompanied

by a stamped, self-addressed, appropriately-sized envelope. Telephone, fax or e-mail contributions of late-breaking news or last-minute insertions are accepted as space allows. Phone (330) 483-1104; FAX (330) 483-1444; e-mail is If you have questions about submission guidelines, please contact the Editor. Submission guidelines are also found at:

Deadline for each regular issue is the 3 of the preceding month. Dedicated issues may have separate deadline dates and will be noted by the Editor.

Articles printed do not necessarily reflect the opinions of the AKF staff or the American Association of Zoo Keepers, Inc. Publication does not indicate endorsement by the Association.

Items in this publication may be reprinted providing credit to this publication is given and a copy of the reprinted material is forwarded to the Editor. If an article is shown to be separately copyrighted by the author(s), then permission must be sought from the author(s). Reprints of material appearing in this journal may be ordered from the Editor. Regular back issues are available for $6.00 each. Special issues may cost more.


Animal Data Transfer Forms available for download at AAZK Publications/Logo Products/

Apparel available at AAZK Administrative Office or at

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Elizabeth Thibodeaux, Elizabeth. ENRICHMENT OPTIONS COLUMN COORDINATORS Stephanie Miner, Julie Hartell-DeNardo,

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ANIMAL WELFARE COLUMN COORDINATORS Stephanie Miner, Julie Hartell-DeNardo,

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VICE PRESIDENT - Conservation: Nicole Pepo, Ethics Chair

Conservation Committee

Chair: Saul Bauer,

Vice Chair: Carrie Ellis,

Bowling for Rhinos Program

Program Manager: Kym Janke,

Vice Manager: Matthew Mills,

Trees for You and Me Program

Program Manager: Christy Mazrimas-Ott, Vice Manager: Vacant

BOARD MEMBER - Education: Ellen Vossekuil, International Outreach Committee

Chair: Yvette Kemp,

Vice Chair: Noah Shields, |

AAZK Resource Committee

Chair: Jenny Owens,

Vice Chair - Loren Berry,

BOARD MEMBER - Recognition: James Weinpress, Awards Committee

Chair: Erika Defer,

Vice Chair: Autumn Lindey,

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Chair: Laura Chapman,

Vice Chair: Stacie Bockheim,

BOARD MEMBER - Regulation: Kristen Scaglione, Safety Committee

Chair: Sara Morris,

Vice Chair: Kathryn Juliano,

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Chair: Megan Wright,

Vice Chair: Tricia Gunther,

Bylaws Program

Rebecca Filippini,

BOARD MEMBER - Communication: Abbie Doan, Communication Committee

Chair: Joy Kotheimer,

Vice Chair: Tianna Redieck,

National Zoo Keeper Week Program

Program Manager: Jenna Schmidt, NZKW

Vice Manager - Audrey Harmon, NZKW


Spring is a season of rebirth with plants blooming and animal awakenings. The realm of animal care includes another new beginning as it sees the start of the summer intern search! Many of us began our careers as interns where we first learned the ropes of animal care, behavioral husbandry, and public education and we now oversee the next generation of professionals. The retrospective views of internships often focus on the hard work that many did as unpaid volunteers, but as the mentors to new interns we should aim high and expose them to every aspect of an ever-evolving profession.

Behavioral husbandry has evolved into an important focus for me as a mentor. I used to have interns observe my training sessions and give enrichment items to the animals. Training sessions now include instruction in the principle of positive reinforcement, understanding of the vocabulary associated with training, and teaching the skills to perform their own training sessions. Enrichment used to involve delivering approved enrichment, but now interns are given the opportunity to submit their own ideas for new items and build previously approved ones. The Animal Training Terms and Definitions document created jointly by AZA and AAZK has served as an excellent resource in this instruction.

Presentation skills are sometimes overlooked for intern development whether it be for peers or public interactions. Animal Keepers’ Forums, both as hard copies and in the Biodiversity Heritage Library, as well as Conference Proceedings have numerous articles and presentations to look at as references for developing skills as well as examples of successful presentation skills. Keeper chats and other presentations are excellent opportunities to engage with guests, but don’t overlook AAZK Chapter meetings or regional symposiums as platforms for developing public speaking opportunities amongst peers.

And as everyone reading this can hopefully attest, AAZK membership can grant access to a collection of knowledge, opportunities, and community that cannot be overlooked as a learning tool for anyone looking to get into the animal care profession. Student or affiliate memberships are excellent for interns to learn as much as possible and increase the professionalism of their resumes and interviews as they seek to transition from mentees to keepers to co-workers within the field.


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FINAL Call for Paper & Poster Abstracts 2020 AAZK National Conference

46th Annual AAZK National Conference

Los Angeles, California

August 30 —September 3, 2020

Conference Theme: “Lights, Camera... Take Action!”

How to Submit Your Abstract for Consideration:

Visit the conference website for more information at or email the AAZK Professional Development Team at for a direct link to the Google Form. If you do not use the Google Form application, your abstract will not be reviewed. The deadline for submission of abstracts for Papers and Posters is May 1, 2020.


Authors will be allowed 15 minutes for a presentation with five minutes of Q & A immediately following. If accepted, you may be scheduled to present your paper in the main ballroom, or you may be scheduled to present your paper during a concurrent, themed paper session which may have a more intimate setting.


Posters will be on display throughout the Conference with a dedicated Author Session scheduled for the evening of September 1*. Prior to the Author Session, posters will be judged by members of the AAZK Professional Development Team on criteria such as adherence to the conference theme, innovation, and poster layout and organization. Certificates will be awarded to the top three highest scoring posters during the Conference Awards Ceremony immediately following the Poster Author Session.

The AAZK Professional Development Team will notify authors of acceptance of their paper or poster abstracts via email, no later than June 1, 2020.

Thank you for your support for the conference program!

April 2020 | Vol. 47 No.4 | 103

rXo\e-]avel) ale Mol) e)ar-lal@(ir-lcom MalcelelelaMmac-lialiarem-laremiut-lar-le(s]aarciane Cheyenne Mountain Zoo, July 2020

Advancing elephant welfare means addressing some big challenges. RECON is the workshop specially designed to help elephant care professionals meet those challenges by improving your knowledge of behavior-change science and strengthening your training skills. Each day, participants will engage in stimulating lectures with open discussions where your voice will be encouraged and respected, as well as training practice with individualized feedback with elephants and other model species.

Be part of the growing solutions by growing your knowledge and skills. Join us at the Cheyenne Mountain Zoo for a game changing opportunity.

Dates: July 27-29, 2020 (Optional Zoo Day July 30)

Location: Cheyenne Mountain Zoo, Colorado Springs, Colorado, USA

Speakers: Steve Martin, Dr. Susan Friedman, Mike McClure, and CM?z’s elephant téam

Target Audience: Program managers, elephant trainers, and other elephant care professionals

Registration: $500 (5250 reservation deposit + $250 final payment) Includes daily transportation to and from the hotel, lunches, snacks, note guides and more,

Participants: Limited to 15 participants

For more information and to submit an application for the workshop, visit the website at:


May 4-8, 2020

Practical Zoo Nutrition Management

Front Royal, VA

Hosted by Smithsonian-Mason School of Conservation programs/graduate-and- professional/practical-zoo- nutrition-management/

June 22-26, 2020

Zoos and Aquariums Committing to Conservation

Salt Lake City, UT

Hosted by Utah's Hogle Zoo and Tracy Aviary

For more information go to:

September 13-17, 2020

AZA Annual Conference Columbus, OH

Hosted by the Columbus Zoo and Aquarium

For more information go to:

May 11-14, 2020

4" Annual International African Painted Dog Conference Missouri Department of Conservation Powder Valley Conference Center.

For more information go to: blog/4th-annual-international- african-painted-dog-conference/

July 18-25, 2020

Felid TAG Annual Conference Berkeley, California

Hosted by Oakland and San Francisco Zoos

For more information go to:

September 27-October 2, 2020 Giraffe Care Workshop

Colorado Springs, CO

Hosted by Cheyenne Mountain Zoo For more information go to:

Post upcoming events here! e-mail

June 8-12, 2020

Level Up: Zoo Animal Behavior Workshop

West Palm Beach, FL

Hosted by Palm Beach Zoo and Conservation Society

For more information go to: level-up-animal-training-workshop

July 27-29, 2020

RECON Elephant Workshop Colorado Springs, CO

Hosted by Cheyenne Mountain Zoo For more information go to: workshop/

October 18-22, 2020

Otter Keeper Workshop 2020 Miami, FL

Hosted by Zoo Miami

For more information go to:

February 9-12, 2021 Save the Date! International Congress of Zookeepers

Wellington, New Zealand For more information go to:

April 2020 | Vol. 47 No.4 | 105


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Good Intentions: Are Zoos and Aquariums Encouraging Visitors to Conserve?

Rebeka Torlay, Bird and Mammal Trainer II

Downtown Aquarium Houston, TX


There are many factors that cause conservation intent to change behavior, but there is a gap that exists between these two concepts. Research indicates that while simply increasing guest knowledge of conservation issues is

not enough to encourage conservation behavior, other tools such as live

animal demonstrations and using additional resources to follow up with guests after a zoo or aquarium visit

can be very effective in encouraging conservation behavior. An analysis of literature was performed that focused on increasing conservation knowledge and encouraging conservation behavior in guests of zoological institutions.

The analysis found that measuring

the intention to perform a behavior

can be used as a representation of actual behavior performed when it is impossible to measure behavior directly, but it is not always the most reliable measure, and there are other methods to predict behavior that could be beneficial to the field.


Modern zoos and aquariums have progressed from being places solely for entertainment to informal education institutions that focus heavily on conservation education (Anderson,

et al., 2003; Ardoin, et al., 2016). As conservation education institutions, one of the most important things that zoos and aquariums do to keep in line with their mission statements is to encourage their visitors to do things in their own lives that are beneficial for the environment - also known


as pro-environmental behaviors. To help in their conservation efforts, accredited zoos, aquariums, and other similar institutions have become huge proponents of informal education

to raise awareness and increase

guest knowledge on environmental/ conservation issues (Ardoin, et al., 2016; Schmidt & Beran, 2016) with the hopes of encouraging guests to take action in their own lives after they leave ZOO or aquarium grounds (Anderson, et al., 2016; Ardoin, et al., 2016).

They recognize that human behavior

is the most powerful threat to the environment (Verissimo, et al., 2017).

When considering the idea of pro- environmental behavior, it is important to acknowledge that there is often a gap between environmental knowledge and awareness and the behavioral changes that benefit the environment (Ardoin, Schuh, & Khalil, 2016; Kollmuss & Agyeman, 2017; Verissimo, et al., 2017). Actions and behaviors that benefit the environment or have some kind of environmental conservation benefit will hereafter be referred to

as “pro environmental behaviors”, or “conservation actions” in this review (Ardoin, et al., 2016; Verissimo, et al., 2017).

There are several factors that influence people’s environmental attitudes and tendency to perform conservation behaviors. These factors include education level (Newman & Fernandez, 2015; Kollmuss & Agyeman, 2017), political affiliation (Feinberg & Willer, 2012; Newman & Fernandez, 2015),

gender (Kollmuss & Agyeman, 2017), economic factors (Kollmuss and Agyeman, 2017), values, environmental awareness, and attitudes (Kollmuss & Agyeman, 2017; Newman & Fernandez, 2015). Research suggests that attitudes and perceptions about issues cannot always be changed in a short amount

of time (Hacker & Miller, 2016). Even subtleties such as how the conservation messaging is framed when it is explained can have an effect on whether or not people will be receptive to the messaging (Feinberg & Willer, 2012; Haidt, 2013; Monroe, 2003).

The purpose of this literature review is to answer the question, “Are zoos and aquariums effective at inspiring behavioral change in guests that leads to performance of conservation actions?” This idea of a distinction between behavioral intention and performance of the behavior is based on Kollmuss

& Agyeman’s (2017) recent work that suggests there is a gap between having the intention of performing pro- environmental behavior and the actual performance of the behavior.


Literature was chosen on the basis that the study had to be conducted

in a zoological setting, such as a zoo, aquarium, or similar institution that promotes conservation education. For purposes of this analysis, conservation behavior was defined as an action that an individual was capable of taking

to positively impact the environment, ecosystems, or wildlife in some

way. Examples include donating to

conservation non-profits, writing messages to legislators to encourage environmental protection legislation,

or changing consumer behavior to purchase products that don’t contribute to habitat destruction. To find the literature, Google Scholar, Researchgate, and Miami University Library Online were used. The initial search terms were “conservation behavior” and “pro- environmental behavior”. To further narrow the results, the terms “zoo” and “aquarium” were added to find literature that specifically covered studies done in zoological institutions. Literature that focused on measuring the intentions

of guests to perform conservation behaviors or that encouraged guests

to take some kind of conservation action were used. Any conservation behavior that fit under the first criteria was acceptable to use in this review. The selected articles were reviewed to determine whether zoos and aquariums were encouraging guests’ intention to take conservation action or empowering their guests to modify their behavior to take conservation action.

Literature Review

Z Aquarium

Zoos and aquariums can use a variety of tools to achieve their goals of encouraging their guests to take conservation action, such as interactive animal encounters (Anderson, et al., 2003; Ballantyne & Packer, 2011; Hacker & Miller, 2016; Povey, 2002; Skibins, Powell, & Hallo, 2013) informative talks by interpreters or keepers (Anderson, et al., 2003), and informative signage (Anderson, et al., 2003; Hacker & Miller, 2016). Measuring the effect of these tools on guest behavior poses a challenge. Once guests end their visit, it is impossible to directly observe their behavior (Ballantyne, et al., 2007) and determine if it was affected by their visit. In lieu of being able to directly measure guest behavior, studies measure behavioral intent, hereafter referred to as “conservation intent.” Most studies analyzed in this literature use indirect measures, such as Self- reported behavior from the guests. Surveys were a popular method of obtaining this information from guests.

While the literature is generally in agreement about some of the variables

that can be used to determine whether someone will be willing to perform conservation behaviors, it is unclear to what degree these factors can be

used as effective predictors of environmental behavior. For example, Kollmuss & Agyeman’s (2017) study found that gender and level of education were generally good predictors of environmental concern, but the Ardoin et al. (2016) study did not find a significant correlation between education level and performance of environmental behavior. Interestingly, environmental knowledge was not classified as a reliable predictor for people performing conservation actions (Kollmuss & Agyeman, 2017). More research in this area is needed to determine what variables might lead people to perform conservation actions. It is also important to acknowledge that there is often a gap between environmental knowledge and awareness and pro-environmental behavior (Ardoin, Schuh, & Khalil, 2016; Kollmuss & Agyeman, 2017; Verissimo, et al., 2017).

The Skibins et al. (2013) study showed that viewing wildlife in a captive

setting encouraged guests to care about conservation, which they determined to be a good predictor of conservation behavior. This idea of “conservation caring” being a good predictor of conservation behavior is supported

by Swanagan (2010), who claims that guests who attended a presentation with live elephants were more likely to self report that they supported elephant conservation. Swanagan (2010) states that guests need to make a personal connection to conservation issues to feel motivated to perform conservation behaviors.

Tools available for education Live animal presentations are used

across many facilities as

they are a popular draw for

guests to visit zoological institutions (Anderson, et al., 2003). Examples include a training demonstration, or an encounter with an ambassador animal, which is an animal that can

be viewed in closer proximity by guests, usually outside of an exhibit. These types of presentations help zoological institutions to reach their goals of engaging and educating guests. Studies have shown that live animal presentations have greater audience engagement (Anderson et al., 2003; Povey, 2002) and increase guest knowledge (Hacker & Miller, 2016; Povey, 2002; Skibins, et al., 2013) more than simply listening to an educational talk without the aid of live animals or just reading educational signage (Anderson, et al., 2003). These presentations have also been shown to increase caring about conservation issues and encourage conservation behavior (Skibins, et al., 2013).

In addition to “up-close” animal encounters, other types of guest experiences, such as training demonstrations and keeper talks, can be

April 2020 | Vol. 47 No.4 | 109

beneficial in altering guest perceptions and encouraging conservation behavior (Anderson, et al., 2003; Schmidt & Beran, 2016). The Anderson et al. (2003) study found that guests stayed more than twice as long at an otter exhibit when keepers gave a training demonstration with interpretation.

This is relative to simply reading the exhibit signage, or keeper interpretation without the demonstration. Guests seem to enjoy when animals display natural behaviors and watching a training session gives them the opportunity to enjoy watching those natural behaviors. Guests at the San Diego Zoo who saw the elephants performing a wide variety of natural behaviors were more likely to report high conservation intent (Hacker & Miller, 2016).

could have something to do with the duration of time visitors remained at

the exhibit to listen to the talk. The Anderson et al. (2003) study found that guests who listened to an interpretive talk at an exhibit only stayed there about half as long as when there was a training demonstration either with or without interpretation occurring.

From the literature analyzed it appears that live animal demonstrations are one of the most effective tools that zoological institutions can use to engage guests and have them create those personal connections that are so necessary to eliciting conservation behavior in their lives. This is not to say that keeper talks and educational signage aren’t helpful, they simply appear not to be the most effective tool available (Anderson, et al., However, Hacker and Miller’s (2016) 2003; Hacker & Miller, 2016) study could not draw a similar conclusion from guests who listened to the Elephant Keeper Talk, despite predicting a similar result. By their measures, guests who listened to

the “Elephant Talk” did not show

a significant relationship between listening to the talk and their conservation intent. It is possible that the lack of a significant relationship

Guests: Knowledge, Connection, Experience Adelman, et al. (2000) found that many visitors who were surveyed before they entered National Aquarium in Baltimore had a working knowledge of well-known conservation issues and the importance of those issues. This suggests that one of the reasons that guests visit zoos and aquariums could be an interest in conservation issues or awareness of their importance. Hacker & Miller’s (2016) research also showed that members of the San Diego Zoo were more supportive of conservation efforts and were more concerned about humans modifying nature than other visitors were. Members might have expanded knowledge from being able to visit the zoo often, or they might have become members because of an interest in conservation. This relationship is endogenous by nature. Having previous knowledge of these issues might help the guests to make




deeper connections with wildlife and encourage them to take conservation action by expanding their existing knowledge (Buddefeld & Van Winkle, 2016).

Ballantyne & Packer (2011) claim

that exposing guests to information after their zoo or aquarium visit

that models conservation actions is

a very effective way of encouraging actual behavior change and not just conservation intent. They refer to

these follow-up resources as “post-

visit action resources” (Ballantyne & Packer, 2011). One example of using “post-visit action resources was in Buddefeld and Van Winkle’s (2016) study. The resources used in this study were e-mails containing information about climate change and the impact

on polar bears, which expanded on

the information that guests received during their zoo visit. These resources also contained information on actions that guests could take to limit their carbon dioxide emissions for the sake of reducing the damage caused by climate change and were helpful in expanding guest knowledge on the topic of climate change and making them feel positive about their own impacts (Buddefeld & Van Winkle, 2016). Buddefeld & Van Winkle (2016) suggest that learning experiences need to challenge and expand guest knowledge in a way that also relates to their lives to have a meaningful experience and “post-visit action resources” can aid in that. Despite this, it was uncommon for researchers to follow up with guests after their

visit. Providing guests with additional resources after their visit should be encouraged more because there is some evidence to suggest that it is challenging to change people’s perceptions on issues in a short amount of time (Hacker & Miller, 2016). Providing additional materials post-visit would grant longer exposure to the conservation issues

in question and give the zoological institution a better shot at altering someone’s views on conservation and also ideally their behavior.

Although one of the most important goals of the conservation education programs at zoos and aquariums is to encourage guests to use the knowledge that they gain to perform conservation actions after they leave zoo or aquarium

grounds, the gap between intention and behavior can be a roadblock when it comes to creating meaningful change

in behavior. (Kollmuss & Agyeman, 2017). Some studies in this review measured conservation intent in guests after experiencing an educational presentation. Anderson’s (2003) study was Similar in that it measured guest perceptions at an otter exhibit and found that guests had the highest levels of engagement and knowledge retention during the otter training demonstration that had an educator interpreting the session.


Without being able to directly measure guest behavior change after a zoo or aquarium visit, these institutions can use measurements of conservation intent as a stand-in, with the hopes that it will become conservation behavior. Relying heavily on guests to self-report their behavior can be an unreliable source of information due to outside pressures, but in the absence of the ability to take direct measures, it is an acceptable method for collecting data. Research does suggest that there is a gap between conservation intent and actual, meaningful behavior change (Kollmuss & Agyeman, 2017). For future research it could be useful to use behavioral models to try to predict guest behavior rather than always relying on self- reported behavior, such as the Dierking, et al. (2004) study. Although this study suggested a more sensitive behavior model to predict guest behavior, it

still presents the possibility for using different methods for predicting guest behavior.

Although it is not always easy for keepers and educators in zoological settings to make meaningful connections with guests, it seems that it is beneficial to communicate with guests about what kinds of conservation actions they might already be taking to encourage them

to add more conservation behaviors

to their daily routine for the sake of benefitting wildlife. For example, ifa keeper sees a guest using a reusable shopping bag instead of a plastic one, they might suggest to that guest to reduce or eliminate their use of single use plastic straws, which would also reduce their plastic usage. This idea is

based on the Ardoin, et al. (2016) work that indicates that people are likely to take additional conservation action

if they already perform conservation behaviors in their life.

Many studies done in zoological settings show that zoos and aquariums do not rely solely on disseminating knowledge or resources as a way of encouraging conservation behavior. There are

many tools that these institutions use to convey conservation messaging

to guests. Presentations that involve live animals appear to be one of the most effective tools for engaging

guests and encouraging conservation behavior. The literature shows that while gaining knowledge about

wildlife and conservation issues can

be helpful in shaping the intention to perform conservation actions, it is not necessarily a good predictor of people’s performance of those behaviors.

It is clear from the literature that simply visiting the zoo or aquarium is not enough to change behavior, but that is not to say that educators and keepers shouldn't make the effort to educate guests at all. The Adelman et al. (2000) work suggests that many guests who visit zoos and aquariums might already have some knowledge of conservation issues and an interest in them. It would be extremely beneficial to expand the knowledge of guests like those and encouraging them to use that knowledge to benefit the environment. /"™™*


Adelman, L.M., Falk, J.H., and James, S. 2000. Impact of National Aquarium in Baltimore on visitors’ conservation attitudes, behavior, and knowledge. Curator: The Museum Journal 43(1):33-61.

Anderson, U.S., Kelling, A.S., Pressley- Keough, R., Bloomsmith, M.A., and Maple, T.L. 2003. Enhancing the zoo visitor’s experience by public animal training and oral interpretation at an otter exhibit. Environment & Behavior 35(6):826-841.

Ardoin, N.M., Schuh, J.S., and Khalil, K.A. 2016. Environmental behavior of visitors to a science museum. Visitor Studies 19(1): 77-95.

Ballantyne, R., and Packer, J. 2011. Using tourism free-choice learning experiences to promote environmentally sustainable behaviour: the role of post-visit ‘action resources’. Environmental Education Research 17(2):201-215.

Ballantyne, R., Packer, J., Hughes, K., and Dierking, L. 2007. Conservation learning in wildlife tourism settings: Lessons from research in zoos and aquariums. Environmental Education Research,13(3): 367-383.

Balmford, A., Leader-Williams, N., Mace, G.M., Manica, A., Walter, O., West, C., and Zimmermann, A. 2007. Message received? Quantifying the impact of informal conservation education on adults visiting UK zoos.

Camargo, C., and Shavelson, R. 2009. Direct measures in environmental education evaluation: Behavioral intentions versus observable actions. Applied Environmental Education & Communication 8(3-4):165- 173.

Dierking, L.D., Adelman, L.M., Ogden, J., Lehnhardt, K., Miller, L. and Mellen, J.D. 2004. Using a Behavior Change Model to Document the Impact of Visits to Disney’s Animal Kingdom: A Study Investigating Intended Conservation Action. Curator: The Museum Journal 47:322-343.

Feinberg, M., and Willer, R. 2012. The moral roots of environmental attitudes. Psychological Science 24(1):56-62.

Hacker, C.E., and Miller, L.J. 2016. Zoo visitor perceptions, attitudes, and conservation intent after viewing African elephants at the San Diego Zoo Safari Park. Zoo Biology 35(4):355-361.

Haidt, J. 2013. The righteous mind: why good people are divided by politics and religion. London: Penguin Books.

Kollmuss, A. and Agyeman, J. 2017. Mind the gap: Why do people act environmentally and what are the barriers to pro- environmental behavior?. Environmental Education Research 8(3):239-260.

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Chira at 14 weeks

Chiropractor Visits a Neonate Tiger

Dawn Strasser

Head Keeper Neonatal Care and Quarantine Hand Raising Resource Center Advisor, Cincinnati Zoo and Botanical Garden

112 | ANIMAL KEEPERS’ FORUM American Association of Zoo Keepers, Inc.

On 2 February 2017, a four-year-old Malayan Tiger, Panthera tigris jackoni, gave birth for the first time to 0.3 cubs. Her initial reaction to the parturition event was something no one had seen before or expected; she was trying to move away from the cub emerging from the birth canal and in the process of flicking her tail, propelled the cub onto the floor. The pair were monitored

on camera for thirty minutes, during which time the dam sniffed the cub,

but refused to clean it, then abandoned it. During this same time, the cub was observed breathing but did not have normal movement for a neonate. The Curator of Mammals and Veterinarian made the decision that intervention was warranted for the safety and health of the cub.

When the cub (“Chira”) arrived at the Nursery it initially looked good, just cold (core temperature 79.12°F) and wet, so we proceeded to tie the umbilical cord and begin to warm it up. Meanwhile, the dam proceeded to give birth to

two additional cubs and repeated her pattern of sniffing them, not cleaning them and then abandoning them. We decided to remove these cubs for hand- raising as well. The two (later) cubs were vigorous and had strong sucking response, however it was noted that

Chira at one-day-old

the first-born cub could not hold up her neck. Upon closer examination, it was determined that “Chira’s” neck was abnormally positioned at a 45° angle off her back, so we proceeded to start manipulating the neck slowly in an attempt to get it back into a “normal position”. However, when she would lay on her side, her neck would be

over her back resulting in whining or screaming vocalization and the inability to move her head in a normal manner or hold in